The Health and Safety Executive for Northern Ireland (HSENI) is reminding farmers and contractors to take extra care during the silage season.

The silage season can be very demanding as there is always pressure to complete the job as quickly as possible. It is therefore extremely important to plan the work accordingly in order to minimise any risks that could potentially occur during this time.

In light of the current Covid-19 pandemic, farmers and contractors must also ensure they and their employees follow the Government guidelines in relation to social-distancing and hand-washing.

Farmers and contractors must be aware that because of the pandemic there may be even more pedestrians and cyclists using country roads for exercise purposes.

Other factors which increase the chance of an incident include fatigue due to long working hours, poor weather and difficult ground conditions, inexperienced operators and using mobile phones when driving.

Children and young people

No child under the age of 13 should ever be carried in the cab of any machine involved in making silage. Contractors must not allow children to ride in tractor cabs or the cabs of self-propelled harvesters.

There are certain restrictions on what size, width and weights of tractors certain age groups can operate.

For example, a 16-year-old can only operate tractors less than 2.45m wide and tow trailers less than 2.45m wide with 2 wheels or 4 wheels close coupled (close together).

For more information on this please visit this link.

Studies have shown that a person wearing reflective or high visibility clothing will be seen 3 seconds quicker by a person driving a vehicle; therefore, it is good practice for both adults and children to wear bright or reflective high visibility clothing during silage season.

Young children should not be allowed to play around the farmyard or fields when silage is being made. There should be a safe and secure play area available for young children to play in and younger children must always be supervised by a competent adult at all times.

Machinery and vehicle safety

Tractors and any other equipment being used at silage time need to be properly maintained and kept in good condition.

Breakdowns, due to poor maintenance can lead to delays, adding extra cost and more pressure to an already busy schedule.

Only competent drivers should be allowed to operate machinery during the silage season and the carrying of passengers should be avoided.

Employers must also make sure they have undertaken a specific risk assessment for any young persons under the age of 18 who are working for them, which takes into consideration their experience, maturity and their awareness of risks.

All guards must be in place on all equipment, and in particular, PTO shafts must be properly guarded.

If blockages need to be cleared by hand this must only be carried out when the PTO drive has been switched off and sufficient time has been allowed for the machine to stop completely.

The contractor/supervisor or manager on site should be notified of any blockages by the driver and should offer assistance if required as many drivers are only competent in driving the machinery and not maintaining it.

It is essential to remove keys from tractors during maintenance operations.

Approved safety cabs or roll bars must be fitted on all tractors, these must be fitted in line with the manufacturer’s guidelines and also by a competent person.

Take care when driving on the public road and watch out for other road users especially when entering or leaving fields or yards.

Keep all lights and indicators in working order and ensure all mirrors and windows are cleaned to ensure good visibility for the driver.

For more information on driving agricultural vehicles safely on public roads please visit this link.

Silo safety

Silos must never be overfilled as this greatly increases the chance of a tractor or loading shovel overturning when filling or rolling a silo.

Great care should be taken if anyone has to go under a silage cover to retrieve a tyre when the silo cover is being put in place.

No person should go underneath a silage cover once the cover has been fixed in place. The fermenting grass uses up the oxygen in the air under the cover very quickly and at the same time the level of harmful gases increases rapidly.

These gases include carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Anyone going under the cover when the covers have been fixed in place risks death due to asphyxiation. Always try to have another person with you when fixing the silo cover in place.

On open silos, with earth embankments, the sides and ends of the silage should be sloped off at a safe angle (less than 45º).

On other silos where machines and their drivers can drop 600mm (2ft) or more, strong front end barriers and guard rails are required.

Silos with walls should never be filled above the top of the wall. If overfilled the guard rail will no longer be effective and will increase the risk of a machine overturning.


Be particularly careful when working near overhead power lines.

If you use a contractor for silage making, inform them of the location of any overhead power lines which you feel may impact on large machinery. This can be done by explaining where live overhead power lines are via a map or a site/field visit.

If in doubt contact Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE) Networks on: 03457-643-643.

If possible use a banksman to direct vehicle movements in farmyards where there are overhead power lines near silos or tipping areas or where there are areas of limited visibility.

Remember, electricity can arc meaning you need extra clearance for higher cable voltages. If in doubt about the height of overhead power lines and suitable clearance distances consult with NIE Networks.

To find out more about farm safety please call the HSENI helpline on: 0800-0320-121 or visit the farm safety webpage.